International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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16th World Vegetarian Congress 1960

Hannover and Hamburg, Germany

Minutes of the Business Meetings

20 - 28 AUGUST 1960
held under the auspices of The Vegetarier Union Deutschland

The Business Sessions
(circulated: to be approved Spain 1963)

In the presence of representatives from Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Holland, Hungary, Iceland, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and United States of America.

Chairman: In the absence of a President and Deputy President Mrs Rukmini Devi Arundale MP (India), IVU Vice President, was elected Chairman for the Congress.

In her opening remarks the Chairman said her first duty was to ??? a resolution that messages of sympathy be sent to relatives of Mrs Clarence Gasque (late President), Mr W A Sibly MA JP (late Past President), and Mr H Harris FSAA (late General Secretary). The resolution was adopted and the Meeting stood in Silent Tribute to their memory.

The Chairman conveyed the greetings of Indian vegetarians and expressed her gratitude for the opportunity to discuss work for the lessening of suffering of Man and the animals. She expressed the Meeting's happiness to be in Germany where vegetarianism is so well established and hoped the Congress would have the same success as he 15th Congress in India which attracted the notices of heads of her Government,

Messages of good wishes and apologies for absence were read from Mr Oluf Egerod (Deputy President, missing his first Congress since 1923 and to whom a cable of regret and best wishes had been sent from the inaugural dinner), Mr Woodland Kahler and Mr H H Jones (Vice Presidents), Mr Lee Pritzker (President: Canadian Vegetarian Society), Mr Adolf Briest (Founder and Past President: Vegetarier Union Deutschland) and from many individuals and Members Societies.

Minutes of the previous (15th) World Vegetarian Congress in India, November 1957 were approved and signed by the Chairman (22 August 1960).

The Bi-Annual Reports for the two years ended 31 December 1959 were given by the General Secretary (Mr Rudd) and the Regional Secretary for India and the East (Mr Mankar) and these were approved.

The Financial Report for the two years ended 31 December 1959 was given by the Treasurer (Mr Pedersen) and was approved. The regional Secretary for India and the East presented the Indian Congress and Secretarial accounts and these were approved.

Auditors: It was agreed that Messrs H Julius Lunt & Co of Manchester, England, be re-appointed as Honorary Auditors and the General Secretary was instructed to convey the IVU's gratitude for their very kind services.

Election of Officers for a term of office - the following were elected unanimously:

PRESIDENT: Mr Woodland Kahler BA (USA, France and India)
The following cable was read from Mr Kahler: "I feel pleased and honored to hear of my election as President and will do my best to merit the confidence placed in me. Greetings and best wishes to all Delegates and visitors attending the 16th World Vegetarian Congress in Germany. Let us help the world to awaken from its nightmare to a happier reality."

DEPUTY PRESIDENT: Mr Geo Hiller (Germany)

Vice Presidents (re-elected):-
Dr B P Allinson (UK)
Br Ralph Bircher (Switzerland)
Ven M V Dharmawara (Cambodia)
Mr C Freshel (USA)
Mr G Hodson (New Zealand)
Dr W McGregor (USA)
Dr Douglas Latto (UK)
Prof J de Marquette (France)
Prof Scott Nearing (USA)
Mr N Nielsen (Norway)
Mr H l Pakvasa (India)
Dr K J Rogler (Norway)
Mr D Semple (UK)
Prof H B Stevens (USA)
Dr M Tada (Japan)
Mr J Vinjeborg (Holland)
Mrs Rukmini Devi Arundale MP (India)
Dr Aldo Capitini (Italy)
Dr Lowell Fillmore (USA)
U San Hla (Burma)
Mr H H Jones (UK)
Mr J N Mankar (India)
Mr S H Linnio (USA)
Dr J Maxwell (USA)
In G van Nederveen (Holland)
Dr J Pedersen (Sweden)
Mr C Schelin (Sweden)
Mr M M Shah (India)
Dr C Sypkens (Holland)
Mrs M D Malegamvala (India)

Vice Presidents elected:
Miss Ruth Playle (Canada), Dr Jesse Mercer Gehman (USA), Rajkumar of Vizianagram (India), Dr Gordon Latto (UK), Dr Angelo da Costa Cabral (Portugal), Mr Oluf Egerod (Denmark).

Permission was granted to the committee to accept the delayed nomination of new Vice-Presidents from the Federated Vegetarian Societies of Spain and the Vegetarian Union of Israel. (Note: Dr O Robinson and Mr B Niedzwidz were subsequently nominated by the Israel Society - nominations from Spain awaited).

Treasurer: Mr Josef Pedersen (Sweden) was re-elected.
Assistant Treasurer: Mr G L Rudd was re-elected.

Executive Committee: in addition to the President, Deputy President, Treasurer and Assistant Treasurer the following were elected or re-elected:

Dr B P Allinson (UK), Dr Douglas Latto (UK), Dr Jean Nussbaum (France), Dr Gordon Latto (UK), Mr Jan Vinkenborg (Holland), Rajkumar of Vizianagram (India), Dr Pasteur C A Skriver (Germany).

(The election of the Executive Committee took place after considering a subsequent item effecting Clause 15 and approving the amendment to the rules)

Mrs Rukmini Devi Arundale graciously offered the Chair to Mr Hiller as the new Deputy President, but Mr Hiller asked her to be kind enough to continue as Chairman for the duration of the Congress.

General Secretary: The recommendation of the retiring Committee that Mr Geoffrey L Rudd be asked to continue as Honorary General Secretary was approved.

Regional Secretaries Appointed: Mr J N Mankar (India and the East), Dr Jesse Mercer Gehman (The Americas)

IVU Representatives in all countries. It was agreed that it is desirable that the IVU should have an official representative in all countries to co-ordinate the work and it was suggested that Vice President or a Society Secretary should be asked to co-operate.

The Constitution: The following amendments to the Rules were approved unanimously at a full Congress Session:-

Clause 8 to read as follows "The funds of the IVU shall be drawn from the following sources: (a) From Member Societies which shall pay annually 2% (two percent) of their annual subscription income but in any case the minimum annual subscription shall not be less than 2 Sterling or its equivalent. Such subscriptions shall be paid annually to the Treasurer or the Assistant Treasurer by December 31st" (Note : "Annual subscription income" does not include legacies or donations made for specific purposes other than the general subscription income).

That the whole of item (b) be deleted. (This read "From the subscriptions of individual members of The I.V.U.)

That item (c) become Sub-Clause (b) - "From the donations of persons or groups."

(The above alterations mean that there are no Individual Members as such, though The I.V.U. will still be grateful for donations from individuals who wish to support the international work.)

Clause 15 was amended to read as follows:-
"The affairs of The I.V.U. shall be administered by an Executive Committee consisting of the President, the Deputy President, the Treasurer, the Assistant Treasurer and not more than eight other members, all of whom shall be elected at a meeting of the Congress. All so elected shall retire at the next Congress but all shall be eligible for re-election. The immediate Past President shall be a member of the Executive Commitee for the term and may be re-elected in the event of the same President being re-lected. Auditors for the ensuing period shall also be elected at a Congress meeting.

Clause 17 amended to accord with the approved previous minutes :-
"The General Secretary shall be appointed by the Executive Committee and shall be responsible to this Committee which has power to appoint Assistant Secretaries and Regional Secretaries.

Clause 25. The first sentence to read as follows:-
"A quorum at an Executive Committee shall be five. Meetings etc., etc,.

Future Congresses. It was agreed that the invitation of the Spanish Vegetarian Societies to hold the 17th World Vegetarian Congress in Spain in 1962 be accepted.

It was agreed that the Congress should be held at the place and time of year considered best by the Spanish Societies.

Mr C. Freshel's suggestion that a Congress be held in America under the auspices of the Millenium Guild was agreed with the proviso that, since very few nations could afford to send representatives to America, such a Congress should not have power to transact I.V.U. business and that such a Regional Congress should be in close collaboration with the American Vegetarian Union and the I.V.U.'s Regional Secretary for the Americas.

Regional Congresses. It was agreed that the Regional Secretaries may organize Regional Congresses in the more remote countries, but that these shall have no power to transact I.V.U. business, other than formulate recommendations for consideration at a fully representative International Congress. It should be further understood that such Regional Congresses be self supporting and no charge against I.V.U. funds be allowed apart from secretarial expenses.

Sub-Committee. The Chairman suggested that a Sub-Committee be formed to compose a memorandum to the F.A.O.(and government departments) setting forth the basic nutritional requirements on vegetarian lines for health in tropical and sub-tropical countries where semi-starvation exists. The General Secretary was asked to co-ordinate this work with Dr Frank Wokes, Dr Gordon Latto, Dr Douglas Latto, Mrs I.James, Dr M.Kent and Dr Ralph Bircher.

Missionary work. It was agreed that, as far as possible, the General Secretary should accept invitations from national bodies to further their movements by undertaking lecture tours.

World Vegetarian Day. After a long discussion it was agreed that the first Sunday in September should be a Vegetarian Day, and all Societies are asked to make special propaganda efferts on this day. Each society to organize it effort according to national conditions. The General Secretary was instructed to send out a special message for this occasion. [It is recorded that some delegates did not think this date would be suitable in their countries and that they would have preferred to consult their affiliated societies.]

Affiliations: the following affiliations were welcomed, application being made at Hannover:-
The Indian Vegetarian Congress; The Order of Nazoreans (Germany)

Resolution: The following was approved:-
"The 16th World Vegetarian Congress meeting in August 1960 in Germany with delegates from Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Holland, Hungary, Iceland, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and United States of America.:

Notes the efforts being made in different countries to deal with the widespread protein malnutrition and world food shortage, the results of which are a threat to international stability.

It notes the increasing attention paid to the replacement of scarce and expensive animal proteins by abundant and cheaper vegetable proteins and has therefore appointed a Committee of experts, who in collaboration with colleagues in the above countries have had extensive experience in this matter, and invites all Governments tackling this problem to consider the specialized knowledge at its disposal and make use of its services.

The Congress has faith in the desire of all peoples to co-operate and overcome the present difficulties and to bring health and happiness to mankind."

Society Reports were presented or submitted in writing by Official Representatives of member Societies.

Thanks were accorded and a presentation was made to Dr Barbara Latto for brilliant translating of speeches during the Congress.

Presentation. Dr Geo Hiller was presented with an inscribed silver bowl as a memento of his work in organizing the German Congress in collaboration with the Vegetarier Union Deutschland and the International Vegetarian Union.

Woodland Kahler
President 25 June 1963