International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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England: early 19th Century
John Frank Newton (1770-1837)



So long as men are compassionate to such a degree that they cannot hear a fly struggling in a spider's web without emotion it can never be reasonbably maintained that it is their natural impulse to wound and kill the dumb animals, or to butcher one another in what is called the field of honour. - The Return to Nature (as quoted in The Extended Circle by Jon Wynne-Tyson)