International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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Europe: late 19th Century
Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904)

Gandhi, a rebel against vegetarianism in his own country where it was an expected duty, took up the unpopular cause in London and became very active in the vegetarian movements. He even founded his own Vegetarian Club in Bayswater with Dr. Josiah Oldfield as president, Sir Edwin Arnold the poet as vice-president, and himself as secretary.

from The Sacrifice

. . . . . . . . But the Buddha softly said,
"Let him not strike, great King," and therewith loosed
The victim's bonds, none staying him, so great
His presence was. Then, craving leave, he spake
Of life, which all creatures love and strive to keep,
Wonderful, dear and pleasant unto each,
Even to the meanest; yes, a boon to all
Where pity is, for pity makes the world
Soft to the weak and noble for the strong,
Unto the dumb lips of his flock he lent
Sad pleading words, showing how man, who prays
For mercy to the gods, is merciless,
Being as god to those; albeit all life
Is linked and kin, and what we slay have given
Meek tribute of the milk and wool, and set
Fast trust upon the hands which murder them.
Nor, spake he, shall one wash his spirit clean
By blood; nor gladden gods, being good, with blood,
Nor bribe them, being evil; nay, nor lay
Upon the brow of innocent bound beasts
One hair's weight of that answer each must give
For all things done amiss or wrongfully,
Alone, each for himself, reckoning with that
The fixed arithmetic of the universe
Which meteth good for good and ill for ill.