International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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Europe: early 20th Century
Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926)

Excerpts from Rilke and Andreas-Salome: A Love Story in Letters, Norton, 2006:

At the inn (a sad little trattoria) I even have to eat a meat dish now and then, much as I did rather not; for vegetarian life appeals to me more and more, and I still avoid any drink with alcohol in it, preferring instead herbal tea and coffee I brew myself, which have became great pleasures. [January 21, 1904]

Regarding [the university most suitable for me] I often think of Zurich. Because presumably I would be able to live in the country there and maintain a vegetarian diet. [Oct. 19, 1904]

Today, according to the day’s date, it has been a month since I arrived here. I have spent it under a strict vegetarian regimen … [June 29, 1914]  

Board and everything else is, given Munich prices and our own vegetarian diet, very affordable; so you will be able to settle in quite frugally. [March 13, 1915]