|International Vegetarian Union (IVU)|
History of the German
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , Jan 1868, p26:
VEGETARIAN SOCIETY, NORDHAUSEN
Our friends will cordially welcome the mark of progress on the Continent, contained in the following communication received by the Secretary :-
SOCIETY FOR NATURAL MODE OF LIVING.
1. The purpose of the society is to promote the health and welfare of the members by a natural mode of living, as taught by Vegetarians.
2. Any person can be a regular member who, by having his name entered in the list of the society, considers it is his moral duty to be active for himself and for others, according to its objects. Extraordinary members are those who, though they practise the natural mode of living, are not yet fourteen years of age. They are entered in the list by their relations.
3. The association chooses every year, at its anniversary, a committee, who must reside in Nordhausen; and who have to conduct the correspondence and all the other business of the society, and are responsible to the members.
4. Part of the meetings are public, part of them private; and both have for their purpose the dissemination of the knowledge of the true sources of health of body and mind and of promoting mutual goodwill.
5. The expenses of the society are defrayed by voluntary contributions; the committee account for the same.
The temporary committee. - Edward Baltzer, Louis Belitski
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , July 1869, p94:
PROGRESS OF VEGETARIANISM IN GERMANY
[Our readers will be pleased with the following brief announcement] :-
To the Editor of the Dietetic Reformer.
My Dear Sir, - The Vegetarian Society of Germany held its first annual
meeting in Nordhausen on the 19th May. It was resolved to stay in contact
with your and the American Society, and I was commisioned to bring this
to your notice. You will very much oblige me if you will send the address
of the Secretary of the American Society. Perhaps you will notice that
I am not now living in Neustadt, but in Oppeln, Silesia. I beg you to
excuse my bad English. - With all estimation and friendly greetings, yours
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , April 1871, p33:
THE GERMAN ANNIVERSARY
The Committee desire to remind readers of the annual meeting of the German Vegetarian Society, to be held this year at Vienna, at the coming Whitsuntide. Any English or American Vegetarians who should be travelling to Germany at that time would find themselves heartily welcome at its meetings.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , July 1872, p105:
GERMANY. - We are glad to announce that the general meeting of the German Vegetarians is to be held on the 9th and 10th of July. Visitors are very welcome. For particulars apply to Mr C. Thilio, Gholis, near Leipsic.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger
(Manchester, England) , October 1872, p146:
Our excellent friend Mr Alfred Von Seefield, has just sent us an account of the German anniversary. He would have written earlier, had he not forgotten, " but work, incessant work, prevented." He has made up his mind ''to lake a five weeks holiday, and go to Switzerland or Italy, and to feed on grapes." My fellow-traveller" he continues, " is a carnivorous physician ; we shall see who fares best of us two!"
'Ihe third general meeting of the German Vegetarians was held at Leipzic, on the 16th July. Mr Thilo of Leipzic welcomed the assembly. The president, Mr May, of Berlin, took the chair. He gave a short review of the last two years. Our number, he stated, has been growing' not rapidly, but steadily. Local Unions have been formed at Leipzic and Mannheiin in Germany, at Zurich and Baden in Switzerland. For the future, we hope, that some Vegetarian students of medicine will exercise good influence. They will soon have completed their studies, and after having taken their degrees, we hope they will be able to defend our principles in the scientific world on equal terms with our learned adversaries. Our Graham-bread is estimated far beyond our circle. For instance, the Empress of Austria, the Chancellor Andrassy, Baron Wenkheim, and Baron Rothschild of Vienna, make use of it.
After the committee had given an account of of its proceedings during the last two years, a Vegetarian dinner was partaken of from 12 to 2 o'clock, and some questions discussed in the afternoon. For the new year were elected, Messrs E. Baltzer, L. Belitski, and S. Rosenthal of Nordhausen, as president and committee, and thus the affairs of our society are again in the well-approved hands of the same persons as in the first two years.
In the evening, from 8 to 10 o'clock, the Rev. E. Baltzer of Nordhausen, gave a public lecture: "man amidst nature." A very large audience of the best classes, listened to the end with intense interest, and thanked the orator by loud applause. A public discussion did not follow. Next day the greater part of the Vegetarians made a trip to Dresden and Saxon Switzerland.
For sale were exhibited two photographic groupes, each of eight living Vegetarians, and one of four deceased, viz., Pythagoras, Gleizes, Sylvester Graham, and Gustave Struve. Copies can be obtained from Mr Nauhaus, photographer, at Eisleben. The next meeting is fixed for autumn 1873, at some place in Southern Germany.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester,
England) , August 1873, p311:
ANNUAL MEETNG OF THE GERMAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY. -This meeting was held the week after Whitsuntide at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. We subjoin a short and pleasing notice of it received from Herr vo Seefeld: - "About sixty members attended, chiefly from the south-west of Germany. As a consequence of the large distances between the different localities chosen yearly, the meeting has another appearance in every other place, and a majority of new faces; but the harmony of principles transforms it into the appearance of an aeemblage of old friends. Most heartily welcomed was the Colonel von Knoerzer, of Stuttgart, that brave officer, who upheld the Vegetarian principle in the whole campaign, and on the sick bed, in spite of the doctors. He was severely wounded in the bloody affair at Champigny, and his bridle-arm crushed, but his wounds have healed so well that he holds again the command of his regiment, fully persuaded that many of the maladies of the army are caused by the flesh-meat, and the state in which it is often devoured. A circle of ladies also attended the assembly, and followed the proceedings with great interest. The Rev. Edward Baltzer, of Nordhausen, presided, with the assistance of Messrs. Belitski and Rosenthal - and these three gentlemen were again unanimously elected president, treasurer and secretary for the new year. The proceedings consisted of speeches on Vegetarian topics, with debates following, and a Vegetarian dinner. The monthly periodical may perhaps next year be transformed into a weekly paper; and pamphlets against tobacco and against vaccination, now in preparation, are to be issued by the society. In the evening, the Rev. E. Baltzer delivered a lecture 'On Education.' On the following day a number of ladies and gentlemen united in a very pleasant trip into the hills of the Taunus, visiting it's nice watering place. Soden, and the picturesque ruins of the Koenigstein and Cronberg. The weather was excellent, and the general enjoyment - with rural bread, butter, and milk - was magnificent. The remembrance of these days will remain as most pleasing memories to every one who shared in their enjoyments."
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , August 1874, p87:
The annual meeting of the German Vegetarian Society, fixed for 27th August this year, is to be held in Dresden. The arrangements are to appear in Vereins-Blatt for the present month. These meetings generally last more than one day, and afford opportunities for much social intercourse. Several members will speak English or French, so that an English visitor, unacquainted with German, would not be entirely at a loss should he take the opportunity of meeting with his German brethren, and sisters too, for ladies also attend.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , December 1874, p154:
The annual meeting of the German Vegetarian Society was held at Dresden on the 9th September. In consequence of the day having been several times postponed, the attendance was not so large as had been expected; some had even come in vain at the times first announced. The local arrangements were made by Mr. Wolbold, a Vegetarian Physician and Editor of the Magazine "Naturazt" (The Natural Physician), giving general satisfaction. The state of the society and the efforts for the propagation of its teaching, are reported to be satisfactory. The special numbers were not given, but a new list of members is to be published. The public speeches of the Rev. Edward Baltzer and Mr. Robert Springer (the talented translator of "Gleizes, Thaylsia"), given in the evening, in the presence of a large and attentive audience, were a great success. A trip to Saxon Switzerland on the following day brought the meeting to a pleasant close. (from a letter to the Editor by Alfred von Seefeld)
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , May 1876, p76:
GERMANY. - There are about eight hundred members
in union with the German Vegetarian Society, scattered through Germany,
Switzerland, Austria, and Russia.
A recent issue of the Leipzig journal, Das neu Blatt, contained an article from Mr. E. Weilhaeuser on "The Agitation Against Vivisection." The Nine Reasons of Professor Newman were opportunely quoted.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England) , August 1876, p135:
GERMANY. - The annual meeting of the German Vegetarian Society has been held this year at Cologne. Thirty-nine members and ten guests met in the beautiful Walkenbruch Saloon on the 7th June. The Rev. E Baltzer reported that the funds of the society amounted, at the end of 1875, to 3,044 marks 34 pence (about £145 sterling). 2,400 copies of "Flugblatt" No. 2 (Manifesto), had been forwarded to various newspapers. At Chemnitz, Saxony, a new Vegetarian Union had been established; an eminent military officer had also begun to propagate Vegetarian principles in military circles. A new "Flugblatt," No. 3, had appeared; a translation of our "Twenty-four Reasons," with remarks by our corresponding secretary, Mr. Robert Springer, was also reported.
Then followed a revision of former resolutions of the Union, and the discussion of new measures for the propagation of Vegetarian principles and the agitation against vaccination. The Rev. Ed. Baltzer was again elected president; Mr. Rosenthal, secretary,; and Mr. Belitski, treasurer. It was objected to the proposal for a translation of Graham's "Science of Human Life," that the work was too voluminous and partly antiquated, and that Baker's abridged edition, recently published by the English society, was to be preferred. The question was consigned to a commission.
Discussion then followed on several proposals from the union at Berlin. (1) As to the best form of literature. (2) That everything tending to promote health and to delay sickness - as culture of the skin, ventilation, dress, &c. - shall be furthered by the Vegetarian Society. (3) That petitions shall be presented to the Imperial Diet and to the deputies of the Landtag, urging attention to the rational and natural culture of the discipline of schools. (4) That all expenses of agitation, and the organ of the Society (Vereinsblatt), shall be derayed by the funds of the society, and the favour of the public press culitvated as much as possible. (5) That the establishment of local unions and Vegetarian libraries must be effected with zeal and sacrifice. The idea of establishing a colony (free from vaccination) in Switzerland was rejected as premature.
Fifty-four persons sat down to dinner. Pea-porridge (fresh peas with carrots and potatoes), gruel pudding with fruit sauce, Graham bread, beautiful apples and cherries, were among the dishes provided. Many greetings of welcome were received, including one from Spain, by Miss Meat Wellmer. In the evening Mr. Reuss, from Erlangen, addressed an audience of 250 persons of both sexes, on "Vegetarianism and Social Science," and on the aim of the new dietetic system to abolish misery and promote happiness among mankind. This was followed by a speech from Rev. Ed. Baltzer, on "Vegetarianism and Aesthetics," received with the greatest attention.
The following day was spent in an excursion into the mountains (Dollendorf,
Löwenburg, Rolandseck), keeping happy festival on the borders of
the Rhine. Four sailing-boats filled with Vegetarians, crossed the river,
returning to Cologne in the evening, when leave was taken with the hope
of a future happy meeting.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), October 1878, p205:
The ninth annual meeting of the German Vegetarian Society, at Hanover, began on the evening of the 23rd August, when the members already arrived from other places met their Hanoverian friends to renew old acquaintances, or to form new ones. But the weather being very fine, they soon exchanged the closed room for a walk in the fresh evening air. Next morning, at seven o'clock, found them already assembled in the fine garden of the Bella-Vista round a common breakfast table of milk and brown bread, very lively and well inclined for a good walk around the town. Some ladies and gentlemen even ascended the gallery of the Waterloo Column to have a good look out over the environs.
At ten o'clock the proceedings began in the hall of the Museum. About forty members and associates were also present, nearly all from Northern Germany. No Vegetarians were there from Southern Germany, as they had held their own meeting only four weeks previously at Stuttgart. Among those present we had the pleasure of seeing the Rev. Edward Baltzer, our president, with his wife; Mr. L. May, our vice-president; and Mr. R. Springer, of Berlin; Mr. Oppenheim, of Frankfort-on-Maine; Mr. Cramer, of Halle; Mr. Poppe, of Artern; Mr. Degenhard, of Dresden; Mr. Furgens, of Spandau; Mr. Siemens, from the Rhine; with other old and zealous members. And we were much pleased to see a lady from Sweden, Miss Disa May, who had come directly from Malmo to join our meeting. The Rev. C. H. Collyns, whom we hoped to have the honour of seeing, on his way from Paris, we were very sorry to find was prevented through other engagements.
At the business meeting the finance accounts were found correct, and the new committee, consisting of the Rev. E. Baltzer (of Nordhausen), Mr. L. May (of Berlin), and Mr. L. Vetter (of Stuttgardt), was elected. The progress of the work of the society is satisfactory, but much still remains to be done. Mr. Springer warmly commended different methods adopted by the British society, and pointed out what should next be done, especially with the help of the provincial press. Mr. Weilshauser intends to abridge (the chief contents of) Porphyrius and Gleïzes into two pamphlets; and Dr. Dock, of the Waid, near St. Gallen, will publish a tract in French for circulation on the occasion of a lecture at Paris. Mr. von Seefeld directed the attention of the society to the necessity for an energetic movement against the practice of Vivisection, ot to combine to that end societies which now exist for the protection of animals. To begin with, he distributed a pamphlet by Baron Ernst von Weber, of Dresden. He likewise communicated the fact that is session of the Society of Physicians of Buda-Pesth, Dr. Debay had commended. Vegetarianism as an agent for therapeutic purposes, and had met the assent of the society; and that Mr. Cremnitz, of Paris, advises that dogs never be fed on meat of any description, but only on bread, milk, and vegetables as the best preventative of hydrophobia. The meeting was then closed to permit the arrangements for dinner.
It was the first Vegetarian dinner in Hanover. Ninety-four persons, ladies and gentlemen, sat down at one o'clock. The dishes were - a soup of sweet beer, beans, potatoes, red cabbage, with apples and roasted potatoes, maccaroni, maize pudding, bread, cheese, and fruit. The "menu" of the dinner was drawn by an excellent artist, Mr. Klemme (a Vegetarian), who had put the list of dishes bewteen two angels bearing fruit baskets, and headed by Moses holding the two tables - the sixth commandent, "Thou shalt not kill," being in large characters. The table was beautifully ornamented with flowers by care of our member Mrs. Bartling. The drink was raspberry juice and water; only a few non-Vegetarians took wine. For their further comfort, amid general amusement, was put upon the table (instead of the sirloin of accustomed dinners) a huge "pumpernickel" ( a loaf of sweet brown bread) of 36lb., and many toasts were proposed - one, for instance, to the health of the Rev. Bottcher, for fifty years the leader of the teetotal movement in Germany, and who had come as a friend of our Society. He responded that as fifty years ago the general reason in favour of brandy had been that men could not do hard work without it, they now met the like feeling in favour of flesh-meat, and he hoped to live to see this prejudice likewise conquered. From beginning to end the spirit of harmony and enjoyment reigned universally.
At eight o'clock in the evening, the great hall of the museum was overcrowded by an attentive assembly to hear the public address of the Rev. E. Baltzer. He began by pointing out the triumphs of our age, so great in every domain - whether in industry art, manufacture or invention, yet still son unsatisfactory, so disappointing when taken together in the aggregate result. He showed how general is the longing for deliverance; how the sources of misery are flowing everywhere; how often we see even the richest poor, the wisest stupid, and the mightiest weak. And whence shall we look for the remedy? Ask the philosophers of olden times (e.g., Porphyrius); listen to the wise and good men of all times; what they advise comes to the same end. We must return to nature, we must be true to ourselves. So shall we enjoy that lasting of blessings - "a sound soul in a sound body." We are to breathe pure air, live in wholesome houses, do good work and take good food. Here specially Mr. Baltzer insisted on the beauty and wholesomeness of a Vegetarian diet, as already long ago laid down by Pythagoras, adpted by the Essenes, by the common people of many nations, and commended by the Vegetarians of our days. This is the way that leads to real development - that promotes true harmony of body, soul, and spirit. This new life will solve many social problems, and will exert a most favourable influence on home and public affairs, on industry, agriculture, politics, arts, sciences, and religion. However, delayed, this time will surely come, and the individual Vegetarian can already take, in advance, his share, knowing that Ovid was right in saying: "Prefer et obdure, labor hic tibi proderit olim" - the time shall come when truth and perseverance shall conquer.
The next morning again united us in King George's park, where we took our breakfast of milk or coffee with bread, under the bright sunshine and amid the fragrance of flowers. The rest of the day was spent in visiting the parks, the waterfalls of Herrenhauser, the exhibition, the museum, &c. Many were now obliged to leave, but thirty members remained to another vegetarian dinner, after which they separated with reluctance, regretting that the days had flown so quickly, and promising to keep in good rememberance the vegetarian meeting in Hanover. - A. v. S.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), September 1879, p180:
GERMAN VEGETARIANS IN CONGRESS AT EISENACH
About thirty members of the Society for Promoting a Natural Mode of Life (Verein für naturgemässe Lebensweisse) of both sexes, from all parts of Germany, had assembled in Eisenach in the earl morning of the 30th June. A charming spot is this valley, sheltered by the Wartburg, with its woods, gardens, and villas, and its pleasant littel town. And to complete the satisfaction of the visitors, the towns-people had provided an excellent meeting place - the "Erholung" garden - where they might sit in a spacious hall, or admire the flowers and trees, and walk beneath their shady avenues. The President, Herr May, of Berlin, having opened the day's proceedings, Herr Baltzer, of Nordhausen, the well known champion of every endeavour after freedom, the ideal and the beautiful, furnished the yearly report. From this we gather that Vegetarian teachings are slowly and steadily making their way. Although the society has not gained a large ostensible increase in point of numbers, many families and individuals are strict Vegetarians, and enjoy excellent health, but say nothing about it.
Dr. Dock, of St. Gall, delivered a public lecture in Paris, in the "Salle des Conferences," during the International Exhibition, which mett with a kind reception. Many difficulties still stand in the way of forming a society in Paris. A society has actually been set on foot in Nice, and is patronised by several physicians. Dr. Dock's lectures in Lausanne have also been followed by a substantial result.
The report over, Major von Flotow, moved for taking proper steps for the public advocacy of fruit cultivation, and Herr Meyersieck, of Osnabrück, discoursed concerning "Pumpernickel" ("Schwarzbrod," or coarse rye bread), having been induced to come forward by the enthusiastic praise which Dr. Paul Niemeyer, in his "Half-hours with a Physician," gives to the sweet "Schwarzbrod," called "Pumpernickel." German Vegetarians generally prefer the unleaved wheaten, wholemeal bread, or "Graham bread," but the rye wholemeal bread is perhaps more palatable to a North German taste, and is likewise an excellent article of diet. The best is the genuine, sweet, Westphalian "Pumpernickel," made from ryemeal simply. For special purposes, a mixture of rye and wheatmeal is also in use, which makes an agreeable bread. The company were invited to taste the several kinds. After some remarks from Herr Steinberg, of Jena, on the number and times of our daily meals, Herr Bohrmann, of Frankfort, introduced himself to the meeting as a thoroughly consistent Vegetarian, who considered that animals were no more indispensable for our clothing, &c., than for our nourishment. Clothes and implements might be adequately supplied, he said, without the aid of leather, horn, bone, bristles, wool, &c. He exhibited samples of the various materials, in practical illustration of his statements, and explained in detail what mischief and danger - for example by spreading contagion - was evidently connected with the use of skin, hair, wool, &c., which, by the gradual substitution of these new materials, would be obviated. Although few may at first be inclined to deviate from custom in this direction, it is interesting to be able to prove that even here Vegetarianism would produce no inconveniences. Many ladies and gentlemen of Eisenach shared in the meal that followed, and the company enjoyed themselves merrily. On the table were cabbage soup, kohl-rabi, potatoes with parsley, roasted potatoes, two sorts of pancakes, rice pudding, tart, brown bread, rye bread, cherries, strawberries, butter, and cheese. During the meal congratulatory telegrams came from both north and south. There was even a message from a friend in Australia, who had made there his way to competency, aided by his Vegetarian habits.
After a walk on the Wartburg, all met in the evening in the "Erholung." The spacious hall was crowded from end to end; all Eisenach showed its sympathy. The open doors and windows allowed a free circulation of air, and so compensated for the loss of a summer evening's open-air enjoyment. Herr Edward Baltzer read his essay on "Disputed points of Vegetarianism," in the calm, clear, sympathetic manner which so won his hearer's hearts at last year's meeting in Hanover. To speak of "disputed points" was sufficient to indicate that he did not wish to lay down un alterable rules, but only to deal with questions that were open. There were open questions enough, even among Vegetarians. There was, in fact, a difference as to the signification of the name. Some derived the word from the English "Vegetarian," the English society being of earlier origin thatn their own, and in that country the name indicated a diet furnished by the vegetable kingdom. Others went farther back, and derived the name from the Latin "vegetus" - i.e., brisk, lively, which idea the ancients indentified with "fruges" (fruit), and which meant, by "homo frugi," na honorable, steadfast man. The anatomical question again furnished Vegetarians with a motive to recognise only the fruits of field and tree as the proper food of man, because he has no anatomical resemblance to beasts of prey - his jaw, for example, being formed for crushing and grinding movements. Others may allege that understanding supercedes this argument by teaching mankind cookery, and so enabling him to eat flesh. But by this logic we might equally defend cannibalism. That man can cook and enjoy the flesh of animals is allowed, but it is not therefore desirable to do everything that we can do. - Translated from the Hannoversches Tageblatt.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), August 1880, p177:
BERLIN - The meeting of the German Vegetarian Society took place in the great saloon of the Zoological Garden on the 12th. The president, Rev. E. Baltzer, having been unable to be present, the vice-president, Mr. May, of Berlin, took the chair. Present, about 100 members and friends from Berlin, Leipzic, Dresden, Hanover, Nordhausen, Frankfort, &c. Mr. Hermann, of Leipzic, read the report. A new local society, the "Academic," consisting chiefly of students and undergraduates, been founded in Berlin, likewise two societies in France, one in Paris, one in Nizza. In Germany the number of Vegetarians seems to have increased, though not the number of members. Some members were of opinion that this is the fault of our rules and programme. Instead of the simple "pledge" of the English Society, we have issued a manifesto, and this does not prove generally acceptable. Some find it too religious, and others not religious enough. It is intended to try to solve this difficulty. The same officers, Rev. E. Baltzer, Mr. May, and Mr. Hermann, were elected for the new year. The table was very animated, and Vegetarian songs were sung to popular tunes. Amng the usual toasts Mr. von Seefeld, of Hanover, proposed "Our President," and cited the words of encomium from a proof-sheet of the Dietetic Reformer. Mrs. Stein-Sembritzkij, of Berlin, who has taken eight children, ragged and sick as they were, into her house, and brings them up healthy and cheerful on vegetarian fare, was present. She brought the little ones with her into the Zoological Garden. They seemed radiant with health and delight. In the evening Mr. von Seefeld, of Hanover, gave a public lecture in the splendid saloon of the Town House, entitled "Experiences (Old and New) of the Vegetarian Course of Life." [The lecture has been printed, and Mr. von Seefeld kindly promises to supply a copy to any member of the English Society who, reading German, will ask for it by post-card.] He quoted facts from the geographical and medical pressof recent years, which could not be contradicted. The audience warmly greeted the lecturer. There was also present Dr. Niemeyer, the famous author on hygienic subjects. On Sunday, the 13th June, many of the members visited Potsdam and its environs. The rooms of the Emperor and his family in Babelsberg Castle, not usually to be seen, were opened. It may also be known that the rooms of our Crown Princess are a perfect copy of the rooms she inhabited as Princess Royal in Windsor Castle. The weather was very pleasant. The members parted with reluctance, and well satisfied with their happy gathering.
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), February 1882, p43:
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), September 1883, p244:
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), October 1883, p298:
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), March 1886, p90:
From The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), December 1886, p375:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), December 1887, p416:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), September 1888, p304:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), December 1888, p404:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), March 1889, p83:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), April 1889, p107:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), February 1890, p.60:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), December 1890, p.377:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), January 1891, p.32:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England),September 1891, p.280:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), March 1892, p.84:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), July 1892, p.214:
From The Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester, England), August 1892, p.248: