International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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Vegetarian Federal Union 1889-1911


Reports from The Vegetarian (London) during, 1898:

January 1st, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Official Summary Report of Monthly Meeting, held on Fiday, December 17th. Present: Mr. Hills and Mr. Geo. Jones ; also the Secretary and Mr. O'Callaghan.

Minutes were read and signed.
Matters relating to the Irish Vegetarian Union were considered.
Resolved: "That no persons, who are not members of the Executive Committee, may attend its meeting, except by permission and special invitation of the Committee."
The monthly financial statement was read and signed.
An application for addresses was refused.
Resolved: To communicate with the Vegetarian Society re Jubilee Account Settlement.
It was decided that the National Congress for 1898 be held from September 11th to 17th, and that sermons and other arrangements be at this year's Congress.
The title "Agent" was altered to "Provincial Secretary".
Resolution for Annual Meeting received from Women's Vegetarian Union.
Arbroath and Dundee Societies were affiliated.
Purchased a Humanitarian song, by Miss Clementine Ward.
Decided that a claim, made by the Reading Society, be paid when funds will permit.
"Prov. Secretaries'" monthly reports were read, and "received with satisfaction."

January 29th, 1898:

The Annual Meetings of the Vegetarian Federal Union

An all-day series of meetings, consisting of the reports of various local societies, the usual election of officers, a conference of workers, various committees, and, to wind up, and grand conversazione in the evening, together with a distribution of prizes, to the winning members of the Vegetarian Cycling Club, took place on Friday, January 21st, at the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street.

At the morning meeting, after the purely formal part of the business had been disposed of,

The Chairman (Mr. A. F. Hills) rose to move the adoption of the report. He thought that the Vegetarian movement was very much alive, and this was evidenced by the fact that there were present at the meeting Vegetarians with their reports from all parts of the world. The Vegetarian movement is reaching that stage at which people apologise for not being among us. We are not any more regarded as fanatics and cranks, but are looked upon as those who are seeking for thruths.The great reforms of Temperance and Vegetarianism have begun to act upon one another. The Rev. J. Clark and Councillor Malins are prominent in both these movements. No true temperance can be established without abstinence from stimulating foods. We can never have paradise regained while we continue to use flesh as food. The movement is now producing the crop that will be gathered in the 20th century. We have heard something during the lasthour, and during the Congress last year, of the work that is being carried on in Germany, Belgium, and America, also the great movement in the East. The future of Vegetarianism is before us; we are coming to the days of triumph. Vegetarianism is the condition of a pure and natural life. The Federal Union hopes to increase the knowledge of Vegetarians by holding a congress at the 1900 exhibition in Paris. The reports which we have heard read evidence that the movement is up and doing ; each society increases its numbers and strength every month. We owe much to the ladies who are our organizing secretaries ; their work is beginning to bring out greater efforts on behalf of the Vegetarians in their districts. The change in the attitude of the press, of the ordinary newspapers, is another symptom of what is going on in the whole civilized world. If our eyes were opened we should se chariots of fire and horses of fire when our efforts seem to be showing weakness. The victory is very close at hand. The Federal Union is an organization for the purpose of advancing Vegetarianism by the organization of exisitng societies rather than the creation of new ones. The more eager the spirits in the movement, the more complete the victory. If a society is willing to meet once a month under the influence of one of our agents, if only consisting of ten members, it will grow quickly, but if they are determined to carry on their work alone, they will not succeed. It was for this reason he always insisted that an organization cannot be carried on from many centres, and by many different minds. It was an old doctrine that he had preached for many years, this doctrine of combination, centralization. It is an important point that Vegetarians should remember that the movement is sufficiently advanced to be more highly organized. All should be centred in the V.F.U. Mr. Hills then formally moved the adoption of the report.

The Rev. J. Clark said that it was with some diffidence he rose upon the call of the Chairman, as he did not know until he arrived that morning what the nature of the report was to be. It had impressed him with the character of the people that were carrying on the work in the country; he rejoiced at the progress being made, it was so much greater than it had been in the past. Our Chairman has encouraged us ; we must not grow weary. He thought there was further experience to be gained, and the result of past errors to be overcome before we arrive at the point we desire to reach. The richer the people become the more animal food they consume, and it is the same in relation to drink, for notwithstanding teetotalism, there is more drink now than ever. They did not consume so much animal food formerly because they could not afford it.

Madame Veigelé said that she thought the report a very encouraging one.

The subject of translating the report into foreign languages especially French and German, was brought up by Mrs. McDouall and referred to the Committee.

The meeting then settled down to the discussion of two resolutions, proposed by the Women's Vegetarian Union, which were, however, not carried.


The afternoon meeting took the form of a Conference of Workers. The Rev. James Clark, of the Vegetarian Society, occupied the chair, and in opening the meeting said that one of the most useful duties of a chairman was to occupy the time until the audience had assembled together. The question had just been put to him, "What is the best way of furthering our principles?" By our own personal example. He knew of no better than that. If we declare ourselves Vegetarians, our opponents are not slow to to take up the challenge. He would say, regarding the various methods of propaganda, there is no "better", they are all good that go towards the right end, but they are different. To recommend people so differently situated to follow the samemethod would be to take an impracticable course. The best thing we can do is to equip ourselves for the work. We must read the books to furnish the arguments to use upon our friends ; we must find where others seem weak. Advocates should be men of mettle ; they should not think it enough to feel strongly on behalf of our principles, but should prepare themselves by reading and study, and become thouroughly acquainted with the subject, by means of the handbooks and general literature.

Mr. A. F. Hills said that in London they had discovered that one especially happy means of propaganda was by cookery demonstrations, and the establishment of cookery centres, and the giving of lessons for a small fee. It is a mistake to think that anybody can become a Vegetarian by wishing to do so. One has to prepare one's mind and alter one's tastes. The ordinary cook knows nothing of such subjects as cooking in water or steam, in double pans, or slowly in the oven &c. He wished to make the suggestion that every Vegetarian Society should organize these cookery classes. For a small fee one would learn whatVegetarianism was in the concrete, as well as in the abstract, and the principles would soon begin to permeate the households of Great Britain. With regard to dinners n the schoolrooms, the National Food Supply Association have arranged that Vegetarian meals can be sent out for the charge of 1d. for each scholar. That is a very practical demonstration as to the practicability of Vegetarianism to the children. It is a means of propaganda among people who know nothing about it. In Essex we have founded a place for the unemployed ; about 50 men go there on the Monday and stay there during the week. The principle is that each man is supposed to earn about 1s. 6d. per diem, and that is sufficient to carry a family through in hard times. The work given is manual labour, such as digging, 6 hours a day. No one is selected, they are simply men who apply for work. All through these men are fed upon a Vegetarian diet. We have not had a single case of illness, and not a single serious complaint as to the food. The cook was taken from an army canteen, and in the course of a week he knew sufficient to supply a satisfactory Vegetarian meal. As regards to propaganda by specimen dinners, when beginning to hold these gatherings, have someone to show what Vegetarianism really means, charge 6d. for the tickets, advertise boldly, and you will find that a number of people will come out of mere curiosity. It is advisable not to get up dinners conducted by amateurs, or they will end in failure. If professional aid is obtained it will be done in a style which cannot be equalled by amateurs. Go to the best men in the profession for a good result. When we want a dinner we go to one of the best restaurants in London and say that it must be Vegetarian, and it is. He was not saying anything against the Vegetarian restaurant, but if one wished to produce a special effect on people who know nothing about it one must go to an ordinary restaurant, and one would then also be teaching the restaurateur. When he wished for a Vegetarian dinner on his arrival in town a menu weas sent on in advance to the restaurant,and they then must learn that there are Vegetarians who must be catered for.

Miss Yates said it would do some good if we requested the ordinary restaurateurs to introduce a few Vegetarian recipes into their menu. She had incuded the L.C.C. to promise that out of twelve cookery classes at least two should be Vegetarian in one district.

Miss Nicholson siad they had had much success in exhibiting different things, such as boots, soaps, fats, &c. The L.V.A. had done much work in htis way. They had taken three diplomas, and in one case a silver medal. These exhibitions were a very effective way of bringing the work before the public. "We want more tables and diagrams for our lectures. For beginners especially it is an enormous advantage to have them. We want more influential peopl, and more ladies interested in the movement," said the speaker.

Mlle. Veigelé said that cookery demonstrations were certainly the most sensible way of propagating our principles.

Mr. Boden said that a most important point was the question of the sale of The Vegetarian. When the Society sent a lecturer it did not send the official organ with him. One of the best things that could be done to push the work would be to push the sale of The Vegetarian.

Dr. Oldfield said that before we can advance the movement we must beleive in ourselves. Some would hide the fact that they are Vegetarians, and then people think that it is not worth taking up a movement the members of which are ashamed of it. Wherer there is one alone there may be coldness, but where there are two there must be warmth. We should on all occasions seek other Vegetarians, and make them meet one another. He had found Vegetarians of six months' standing with greater enthusiam than himself. Every meeting to which one goes should not merely be a meeting of Vegetarians, but an attempt to enthuse the members. He did not think that lectures were things of the past, but that they often did more good and were as attractive as social meetings. Every Vegetarian should cultivate his powers of lecturing, but the lecture must not beabove the understanding of the audience or too long.We do not bleed people now, for they have not sufficient strength to undergo the process. One can tell the people that Vegetarianism will increase their strength, that they should live as their ancestors did who were much stronger. He had told his 'bus conductor that meat would take away his strength, and repeated this often, which must have a good effect, for the man would tell others. Other nations who were Vegetarians could stand bleeding, as could our ancestors. Wherever one Vegetarian is, there also should be a Vegetarian Society ; one must not live alone. When two or three weregathered together, the special blessing of enthusiam would be theirs. One must be proud of being a Vegetarian.

Mr. Welch thought that a good means of propaganda was to give little dinner parties. He had been in the habit of gettingmen of every profession to come to his own home and dine withhim. Afterwards they would tell him that they would never forget his dinner party. You create in them a desire to excel, if you tell them the dishes are specially prepared, and by yourself! He had lately come across many references to Vegetarianism, quite favourable, in the popular weeklies. One pare said thatVegetarians reatin their hair longer than others !

Mrs. Boult said that her efforts on behalf of the children in London had been attended with a greater measure of successthan she had expected. She did not agree with the formation of juvenile sections of Vegetarian Societies. Sometimes a children's society precedes an adult one. We must edcate the children, for they will be carrying on our work bye-and-bye. One child in the Highlands writes to them every month, and is very enthusiastic. It is part of the education of this child. The Ivy Leaves are taking the best ideas from the Band of Hope, the Band of Mercy, and the Vegetarian Societies. They hold meeting in private houses to keep the homely element prominent. She always obtains the parents' consent before enrolling a child, and endeavours to obtain their co-operation. As Mr. Beard syas, we want fighting men and not numbers only ; we endeavour to make each child a living reality, growing in enthusiasm, and realizing its responsibility. They are all expected to be workers. The cot in the hospital has been a mosy unfailing source of interest, and from one cot to two, from two to a ward, and from that to the endowment of a hospital is not an impossibility. One of their plans was the establishment of a lending library.

A speaker proposed that it should be suggested to the Editor of the Vegetarian, that at least a column in every Vegetarian should be devoted to matters of interest to children. Madame Veigelé seconded the recommendation, and it was carried unanimously.

After speeches by Messrs. Hanson and Jones,
Dr. Oldfield mentioned that a littel child refused to eat biscuits made in the form of animals, but his sister ate them for him. Children teach us many lessons. A little girl said to him that she was going to be a Vegetarian, but would continue to eat ham, not knowing that ham was part of a dead pig. He would emphasize the importance of keeping the work of the children apart from the adult societies.

Mrs. Boult requested all who had suggestions to write to her. She was very pleased to receive letters from Vegetarians; they encouraged her.

A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Mrs. Boult, and the meeting adjourned to allow a council meeting of the V.F.U. to take place.

February 5th, 1898:

The New Treasurer of the V.F.U.

[a detailed background of Mr. T. Anderson Hanson who became VFU treasurer at the above meeting in January.]

February 12th, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION.
General Committee

Official Summary Report of Quarterly Meeting held on Friday, January 21st. Present : Mr. A. F. Hills, Mr. W. B. Barr, Mlle. Veigelé, Mrs. McDouall, Mr. Nayler, Miss Yates, Mr. Geo. Jones, Mr. A. Gottschling, and the Secretary ; also the following non-members : Mrs. Legetmeier, Rev. James Clark, Mr. Thomas Barnfield, Mr. H. Boden, Mr. A. H. Saunders, Mr. D. W. Bishop Ackerman, and Mr. R. E. O'Callaghan.

The monthly financial statement was read and approved, subject to some alterations in the statement of the assets and liabilities.
It was resolved to issue a special appeal for funds.
It was also resolved that the total amount of receipts, and the total amount of payments for the month, be sent round to the members of the General Committee monthly.
The minutes of the General Committee of July 23rd, were taken as read and approved ; and those of the meeting at Manchester on October 18th, were read and signed. The minutes of the last Executive were taken as read.
Affiliation was granted to the Danish and the Coventry Societies, both Societies having satisfied the necessary requirements, and made application to be affiliated.
The election of Executive Committee, as per rule 8 (c), resulted in the following being elected, viz., Miss Yates, Mr. Nayler, Mrs McDouall, and Miss E. E. Cole ; and a list of names was approved for the Executive to fill the further vacancies from.

March 12th, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION.
Executive Committee

Official summary report of monthly meeting held on Friday, February 18th. Present : Mr. Hills, Mrs. McDouall, Mr. Nayler, Miss E. E. Cole, Mlle. Veigelé, Mr. Geo. Jones, Mr. Forward, also the Secretary, and Mjor Richardson.

The monthly financial statement was read and adopted.
It was resolved that each month £5 should be placed to the credit of a reserve fund.
It was resolved that a badge be presented to Miss C. B. Col, in recognition of her untiring energy which led to its adoption.
The Executive Committee was completed by the addition of the following : Mr. J. Malins, Mlle. Veigelé, Mr. Geo. Jones, and Mr. C. W. Forward ; and the withdrawal of Miss Yates.
It was resolved that the Executive Committee that the rule re voting (8.a) be altered to "All voting upon subjects when firstsubmitted shall be by personal vote only. Should the resolution thus be carried and objection be raised thereto, the matter shall be referred back to the societies, after which the subject shall be considered at the next Council meeting, and the voting shall be as per present rule."
Affiliation fees adjourned to the next meeting.
It was resolved that Mr. Hills reply to Mr. Pengelly' letters be approved.
The affiliation of the Newcastle Food Reform Sopciety was approved.
It was resolved to send two delegates to the Sanitary Institute Congress, the names to be selected and forwarded later on.
The remaining business was adjourned.

V.F.U. INDIAN ACCOUNT

[a summary of donations to VFU from individuals in India, and payments towards the display of 'sweetmeats' at the International Congress.]

April 9th, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION.
Executive Committee

Official summary report of monthly meeting held on Friday, March 18th. Present : Mrs. McDouall, Mr. Nayler, Mlle. Veigelé, Mr. Geo. Jones, Mr. Forward, also the Secretary, and Major Richardson.

The monthly financial statement was read and adopted.
Dr. Oldfield was elected one of the representatives to the Sanitary Congress. The election of the other was postponed.
The hire of hall estimate for the coming Vegetarian Congress was approved.
Among several suggestions for the Congress, one was that another Crystal Palace lunch be arranged.
The re-affiliation of the Dutch V.S. was approved.
A letter from the Northern Heights V.S. was read re the Vegetarian, as also one from the Editor.
The Provincial Secretaries reports were read, and it was resolved that they be received.

April 30th, 1898:

Vegetarian Federal Union
Special appeal for £250

[a list of donations already given, with the appeal for more.]

May 7th, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION.
Executive Committee

Official Summary Report of Monthly Meeting held on Friday, April 15th. Present - Mrs. McDouall, Mr. Nayler, Miss E. E. Cole, Mlle. Veigelé, Mr. Geo. Jones, and Mr. Forward, also the Secretary and Major Richardson.

The monthly financial statement was read and adopted.
Time and place of the Quarterly Meeting of the General Committee was left to Mr. Hills.
Mr. Forward was elected representative to the Sanitary Congress.
A letter was read from Mr. Dawtry, suggesting that a play be written for the coming Vegetarian Congress.
After considerable discussion the following resolution was carried :- "That this meeting, having had its attention drawn to the letter appearing in the Vegetarian of March 19th, 1898, desires to place on record its feeling that matters of difference in the inner working of the Committee, or of the Vegetarian Federal Union, or the ruling of the Chairman for the time being, shall not be discussed in public or by letters to the Press, or other similar methods.
The affiliation of the Bermondsey V.S. was approved.
A design for certificates of Merit for last Congress was approved subject to slight alteration.
Mr. D. W. Bishop Ackerman having sent in his resignation as Prov. Sec. to V.F.U., it was resolved "That Mr. Ackerman's resignation be received with regret, and that the Secretary be instructed to write and say that the Committee greatly appreciated his work in the past, and recognized that his salary in no means represented the value of his labours, and therefore he was regarded almost in the light of an honorary agent."
It was resolved to reprint Mr. Newcombe's Epitome from the Vegetarian if it can be conveniently arranged.

June 4th, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION.
General Committee

Official Summary Report of Quarterly Meeting held on Friday, May 20th. Present : Mr. Hills, Mr. Barlow, Mrs. McDouall, Mr. Becker, Miss C. B. Cole, Mr. Forward, Mr. Nayler, Miss Yates, also the Secretary, Major Richardson, and Mr. O'Callaghan.

The monthly financial statement was read and adopted.
A gold badge was presented to Miss C. B. Cole.
It was decided that the Provincial Secretaries must collect funds for the Union as part of their duties.
An offer was made to Mr. Hills to place a steamer at the disposal of the Vegetarian Federal Union, the London Vegetarian Association, and the Vegetarian Cycling Club, to go and view the launching of a new battleship, on June 21st ; tickets to be 5s. each, asnd the resulting profits to be divided between the three named societies. The offer was gratefully accepted by the Committee. Applications for tickets to be sent in before June 11th.
Next General Committee was fixed for July 15th, in connection with the semi-annual meeting, in London.
Mr. Dawtrey's play accepted, subject to it being approved by the Committee.
Letters were read from Mr. Malins, Mr. Ackerman, Mr. Pengelly, Mr. Bell and Mr. Semple.
Congress arrangements were reported in progress.
The formation of three new societies - one by the Secretary, one by Mr. Harry Phillips, and one by Major Richardson - was reported.
Method of payment of affiliation fees by societies associated to an intermediary organisation to be brought up at the semi-annual meeting.
Provincial Secretaries Reports were read and accepted.

July 9th, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION.
Executive Committee

Official Summary Report of Monthly Meeting held on Friday, June 17th. Present : Mr. A. F. Hills, Mrs. McDouall, Mr, J. Nayler, Miss E. E. Cole, Mdlle. Veigelé, Mr. G. Jones, also the Secretary.

The monthly financial statement was read and approved.
It was resolved that the Secretary's holiday should commence on July 25th, and that of Mr. O'Callaghan should commence on June 17th.
It was decided that a luncheon should be held at the Crystal Palace, in connection with the Congress, on September 15th. That the price should be 5s. but that to members of the Congress the price should be 2s 6d.
It was resolved that a Women's Session should be held on Tuesday, September 13th at 3 p.m., papers to be read only by women, but that the general public should be admitted.
It was resolved that an experience meeting for Vegetarians only, should be held on the evening of Tuesday, September 13th.
It was resolved that only Vegetarians should be asked to read papers at the Congress, or to be invited as set speakers.
It was resolved that 5s. per foot should be charged for stalls at the Exhibition.
It was resolved that the porice of membership tickets be 5s., and that all, whether Vegetarians or not, should be able to purchase tickets of membership at the Congress.
It was decided that the agenda for the Semi-Annual Meeting should consist of a discussion on the method of payment of fees to the Union, by Societies that are associated to an intermediary organization.
It was resolved that a space of 20-ft. by 10-ft. should be applied ofr at the Paris Exhibition, 1900.

August 6th, 1898:

VEGETARIAN FEDERAL UNION.
General Council

Official Summary Report of Semi-Annual Meeting, held on Friday, July 15th, 1898, at 4 p.m.

Present : Miss May Yates (American V.S.), Miss Veigelé, Miss Vibart (W.V.U.), Mr. A. Jones (Reading), Mrs. McDouall, Miss Tegetmeier, Mr. George Jones, Mr. J. L. Emary (L.V.S.), Miss C. B. Cole (Brighton V.S.) ; also the following visitors :- Mr. D. W. B. Ackerman, Miss A. M. Barr, Mr. George Jones took the Chair.

The balance sheet for the half year was approved.
The monthly balance sheet showing assets and liabilities was approved.
It was resolved to hold the next General Committee in London during the Congress week.
It was resolved to adjourn to the annual meeting in January, 1899, the discussion upon the question of fees from Societies affiliated to the Union, which are also associated to an intermediary organisation.
The arrangements for the Congress were approved.
It was resolved to supply affiliated societies with Congress membership tickets at 4s. 6d. each on the condition that they sold them at not less than 5s.
A letter was read from Miss E. E. Cole tendering her resignation, owing to increase in other duties.
Miss Veigelé gave notice of motion for the next General Meeting, to be held in September, that the Comiittee should recommend to the annual meeting of the General Council that in rule 16, instead of the words "General Council" it should be "Annual Meeting of the V.F.U.